IPA: International Phonetic Alphabet
[p] = pit, spit, tip
[b] = bat, rabbit
[t] = tip, stop, put
[d] = doom, under
... more to add soon....
Levels of Dialect.
Can be based on things like.. phonology, grammar, semantics, pragmatics...
transparent levels of dialect variation is the lexicon.. vocabulary
of a language: soda/pop, camp/cabin, davenport/couch... Broadenings:
barn- a building that holds grain -> almost any building on a
farm... Narrowings: from meat being all types of
food -> cow, girl use to refer to any child -> female...
Meaning Shift: bead- from prayer to jewelry...Taboo
Words: 'bloody' is almost the same as our four letter words
in England... Slang: with Uncle Chuck in WV, he had a lot more terms
for being drunk that I had never heard- "in the bag (and tied)"..
Phonological Differences: Boston dropping of 'r',
in WV 'crick' for 'creek'..[lots of terms as to what happens and
what it is called].. Grammatical Differences: Standard-
mine, Vernacular- mines... Language Use and Pragmatics:
Hi!, Hello!, What's up?, What's up Dawg?, What's happening?, How
are you?, How have you been?
is more than that. It establishes the connection/relation to the
forms. how do we say it? what words do we use? based on, according
to one study, the semantics of power and solidarity. Using just
first name vs. title with last name. *Age is less important than
occupational status for determining address form. Very interesting
bunch of studies. European countries have more confusion over address
than we do.
Construct a Network of your
the varieties you use- relative proportions ("gonna",
profanity).. what are the difficulties you encounter in doing so?
::what comes into play- vocabulary, tone, subject, do you dominate/are
from school to home: When I joke around with my family, all is well
and good until I speak ungrammatically.. then suddenly they turn
on me and point out that I am an English major and should be watching
my speech.. or at least should have caught myself even though the
parameters are different at home than if I am in the classroom or
am talking to a professor.
members of the opposite sex that I like I usually allow them to
be more dominate (if I do not like them- I dominate as much as possible)
and my tone/pitch gets softer. On the other hand, out of the private
arena and in the public one with my students, I am more confident
in my tone and rarely allow them to dominate.
talking with another professor or grad. student, I allow technical
terms to slip in whereas in speaking with my dad about the same
ideas, the technical would rarely come into play.
the party atmosphere and in my blogging voice, I use more profanity,
words like "gonna", more slang, and try to be more humorous
instead of informative (teaching) or lovable (relationships).
Gotta know the sound system.
"Standard English": "established writers", resistant
to change, not in natural spoken language.
"Standart English": spoken, pluralistic notion, absence
of non-standard structures.
have no prestige dialect in the U.S. unlike France, Germany.. etc.
different dialects- babel in reverse.
American Dialect Society. 1960's: Geographical studies -> Social
of Non-Standard English all have these 'problems': Double negatives,
different irregular forms ("she done it"), double comparisons
("more bigger")... Mulitplex Network: interact with same
people in different social arenas. Uniplex Network: interact with
different people in different arenas.
All dialects are equal in
the eyes of the linguist.
Explanation... there is not randomness to why certain languages/dialects
turned out they way they did.. there are underlying principles of
language structure that guide the ways in which the dialects of
a language will differ... rule extension, analogy, the transparency
principle, grammaticalization, pronunciation phenomena, words and
Why do languages have dialects?
Explanation... settlement, migration routes, geographical factors,
language contact, economic ecology, social stratification, communication
networks, group reference, personal identity...
What does your speech say
about your lifestyle?
talk, sister talk, friend talk, colleague talk, professor talk (professional),
writing voice, blogging voice, relationship voice...
think most of the time, I don't sound like a grad. student in English.
I try to be a humor/fun person which, for me/to me, means that I
need to use slang and profanity once in awhille. Rarely, however,
do I do this in the classroom when teaching OR when in contact with
professors. Fortunate for me, I live with my crazy sisters and can
let loose with my speech there. They still correct my speech however...
Everyone speaks a dialect
of their language.
English" "Proper English" "Good English"
- How do we define these terms? They are bogus- there is no such
definition. What do these labels tell us about the ideology of our
society? Ideology- meaning- ingrained, unquestioned beliefs about
the way the world world is, the way it should be, and the way it
has to be in respect to language. Why do things always have to be
RIGHT or WRONG? Good or bad? *Calling it "Standard English"
(maybe a better connotation)- we then have sub-categories of formal
and informal levels.
Dialects: Varieties of language which are not classified as standard
dialects- the minority language. This doesn't mean they are bad,
but the majority puts them into that category.